Agricultural development is a general process of agricultural transformation in different parts of the world and at different times in history (see the history of agriculture). These transformations in agriculture can be guided by public policies, called agricultural development policies, or by the intervention of different types of actors (NGOs, international donors), who finance and implement development projects. which are punctual interventions designed to guide agricultural development in a Abuse of language is generally referred to as "agricultural development" as all public policies and projects designed to influence agricultural development. Agricultural development projects are interventions, limited in time and space, aimed at improving the agriculture of a zone in the sense of the collective interest. This collective interest is difficult to define, but among the various possible objectives of an agricultural development project, we can mention the increase of the added value created by agriculture, the food security of a zone, the increase of the productivity of agricultural labor, the obtaining of a monetary income for a certain population, the improvement of the environmental impact of agriculture.
This is reflected in various interventions: public irrigation project, creation of a buying / selling cooperative, experimentation of the introduction of a new technique or variety of plant then technical advice to spread this innovation, microcredit for l purchase of agricultural inputs, for example. These interventions can be set up and financed by a variety of actors: state, NGO, international development organization, donor, foundation of a private company ... These actors, by setting up the project, do not seek not their own interest but the collective interest: in this, the fact of designing an agricultural development project supposes a dysfunction of the market, unable by itself to obtain an optimal allocation of the resources guaranteeing the collective interest.